The Banff Centre logo Human Use Management in Mountain Areas: June 2001.gif (1840 bytes)

Sponsored by

ParksCanadaO.gif (2262 bytes)

With planning assistance from IUCN's World Commission on
Protected Areas

An International Conference presented by The Banff Centre for Mountain Culture, The Banff Centre, Banff, Alberta, Canada  

Here's what the conference looked like and what people said:
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- Quotes and Pictures
- Mountain Conference Inspires Debate


Speakers Facilitators Format & Schedule Location Scholarships
Conference Themes
Optimizing responsible, sustainable recreation and tourism
  • What’s appropriate use and how much is too much?
  • Managing major competitive or special events
  • Managing the local/regional user expectations
  • User-pay recreation as a human use management tool
  • Hardening facilities for changing use
  • Tools for recreational management — how do you allocate opportunities and "qualify" participants?
  • How to educate/inform tour operators and tourism marketers to improve human use patterns
  • Trends in demography and sociology of users
  • Amenity migrants and their impact on use
  • Creating and communicating realistic user expectations
  • Managing conflicts among users

Minimizing ecological impact

  • Human use management to diminish fragmentation of wildlife habitat
  • Determining ecological footprint of various activities to support management decisions
  • Models/standards/monitoring of sustainable use

Optimizing Access

  • How people access mountain protected areas — and the relative impacts of their choices
  • Planning and design of appropriate access for human use management
  • Changing technologies of access — predicting, managing

Minimizing Cultural Impact

  • Sacred places — managing conflict between value systems
  • Fostering residents’ involvement in management/operation of mountain protected areas and their participation in economic benefits

This conference will be of interest to:

  • state/provincial/national park agencies from mountain areas
  • city, town and village councils of mountain communities
  • elders, band council members from First Nations/aboriginal communities
  • park, municipal and regional land use and recreational planners
  • municipal or regional engineers/public works staff
  • municipal, regional and national economic development staff
  • state/provincial/national tourism agencies
  • tourism operators active in mountain areas
  • consultants: planners, designers, engineers
  • state/provincial/national environmental agencies
  • NGOs involved in mountain areas
  • recreation-based and activity-based organizations
  • academics active in mountain research
  • individuals involved in human use management issues in mountain areas


green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) Hardening Facilities for Changing Use

Dr. Bob Aitken (Scotland) - is a freelance research consultant and writer. Bob's Ph.D. at Aberdeen University (1977) was on Wilderness Areas in Scotland, and he has pursued studies on wild land and protected areas since then. But for nearly 20 years mountain paths have been the main focus of his work. This has evolved from arduous hands-on trials of experimental repair techniques, through development of survey and monitoring methodologies and contracting practice, to compilation of area inventories and strategies. Recent reviews have explored the multiple and sometimes conflicting roles of path systems as tools for recreation management and for the conservation of montane environments. While Bob's work in this field has been primarily in the UK, he has taken a close interest in the management of paths - or trails or tracks - in other parts of Europe, North America and Australasia.

Chronically addicted to mountains, mountain conservation, mountaineering literature and history, Bob is engaged with innumerable recreation and conservation NGOs. He has also served on various Scottish government committees, including several engaged in the infinitely slow process of developing National Park proposals for Scotland - which is finally bearing fruit.

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) Sacred Places — Managing Conflict Between Value Systems

Dr. Edwin Bernbaum (USA) — is a lecturer, author, mountaineer, and scholar of comparative religion and mythology. His book Sacred Mountains of the World (University of California Press) won the Commonwealth Club of California's gold medal for best work of nonfiction and the Giuseppe Mazzotti Special Jury Award in Italy for literature of mountaineering, exploration, and the environment. He is Director of the Sacred Mountains program at The Mountain Institute and a Research Associate at the University of California at Berkeley.

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) User Fees as a Human Use Management Tool

Dr. Ralf Buckley (Australia) — is Professor and Director of the International Centre for Ecotourism Research, established at Griffith University in 1993. He is Director Nature and Adventure Tourism for the Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, established in 1997, and coordinates its Environment R&D Program, which also includes subprograms in Wildlife Tourism and Mountain Tourism.

He leads the Green Guides program on best-practice environmental management in tourism, and the Nature Tourism Initiative, including: the People in Parks project on environmental monitoring and management systems; the Partnerships in Parks compendium of case studies in cooperative management; the Heritage Icon Value project on tourism value of World Heritage listing; and the Nature Tourism National Review, summarising the fees, charges and permitting systems used for private visitors and tour operators in Australian protected areas. Ralf is also convenor of the 2001 Fenner Conference on Nature Tourism and the Environment, to be held at the Australian Academy of Science in September.

Ralf has written over 200 articles in science, management and tourism journals, 8 books, and over 100 consultant reports; and has carried out research and consulting projects in over 40 countries worldwide.

Further info:, phone +61-7-55528675, fax +61-7-55528895

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) How to Allocate Recreational Opportunity and "Qualify" Participants

Tom Elliot (Canada) — has worked as a park warden for Parks Canada since 1978. His career began in Kluane National Park & Reserve and has taken him to Nahanni, Wood Buffalo, Yoho, and Auyuittuq National Parks, and Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site.

Tom has a BSc in Forestry from the University of Alberta. He returned to school in 1992 and obtained his MSc in Recreation Resource Management from the University of Montana. His graduate research was aimed at helping Parks Canada develop a use limit program for the Chilkoot Trail.

Tom currently carries the wilderness management portfolio for the Yukon Field Unit consisting of Kluane and Vuntut National Parks, and the Chilkoot, SS Klondike and Dawson City National Historic Sites. His work is generally focussed around recreational use management issues. He frequently works within multiple stakeholder group settings to develop management scenarios that fulfill agency mandates for commemorative and ecological integrity in a manner that recognizes stakeholder needs and interests.

Tom helped establish and evaluate the recreational use limit programs for the Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site, and the Alsek River in Kluane National Park. His work in this area provides the basis of his allocation presentation.

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) Trends in Demographics of Users and How the Trends Affect Human Use Management

Dr. Alison Gill (Canada) — a Professor and Chair in the Department of Geography at Simon Fraser University, British Columbia where she also holds a joint appointment in the School of Resource and Environmental Management. She has research interests in community development and planning issues in tourism environments - which have evolved from earlier research on the planning and design of single industry mining communities. She has published over 50 journal articles and book chapters on these subjects. In recent research she has focused on processes of community change associated with tourism related activities, especially in the Howe Sound-Whistler Corridor of British Columbia. At a broader scale her work explores various aspects of tourism in mountain environments.

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) Managing Conflicts Among Users

Lyle Laverty (USA) is currently the Associate Deputy Chief of the US Forest Service responsible for the leadership and implementation of the National Fire Plan. He is responsible for the fire plan activities on more than 191,000,000 acres of National Forest System lands across the United States. His responsibilities include the oversight and stewardship of a $2.0 billion program of work.

Before his current assignment, Lyle was the Regional Forester of the Rocky Mountain Region of the US Forest Service, responsible for managing natural resource activities on more than 22 million acres of America’s Forests and Grasslands in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming.

He previously served as a senior executive in the Forest Service’s Washington, D.C. Headquarters Office serving as Director of Recreation, Heritage and Wilderness Resources. He held that position from October 1992 to 1997, after moving from the Pacific Northwest Region where he was Regional Director of Recreation, Heritage and Wilderness Resources.

Lyle’s first assignment with the Forest Service was in timber management on the Six Rivers National Forest in Orleans California. In 1972, he became timber management assistant on the Bear Springs Ranger District of the Mt. Hood National Forest in Oregon, followed with an assignment as District Ranger on the Skykomish Ranger District of the Mt. Baker- Snoqualmie National Forest in western Washington.

During a previous headquarters assignment, Lyle spent nearly six years in the Chief’s office in Washington, D.C., working with the Policy Analysis, Recreation, and Strategic Planning staff units. He was Forest Supervisor of the Mendocino National Forest in Northern California from 1983 to 1987.

A native of California, Lyle received a Bachelor of Science in Forest Management from Humboldt State University in Northern California, and a Masters Degree in Public Administration from George Mason University in Northern Virginia. He is a registered professional forester in California.

Lyle enjoys skiing, hiking, and mountain biking. He lives in Colorado with his wife Pam. They are the parents of two grown children, Lori and Chad.

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) Amenity Migrants and Their Impact on Use

Pam Lichtman (USA) — has headed up the Jackson Hole (Wyoming) Conservation Alliance's issues work since 1993. She currently represents the Alliance in the public lands forum, which includes matters regarding Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks, the national forests, oil and gas leasing, and grizzly bear management. Pam holds a B.A. in Political Science and Environmental Studies from the University of Vermont, and an M.S. in Hydrology and Water Resource Management from the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. Before coming to work for the Alliance, she was employed as a consultant for the Natural Resources Defense Council, project assistant for the Center for Marine Conservation, and legislative aide for Zero Population Growth. Pam is also a Research Associate with the Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative based in Jackson.

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) Human Use Management to Diminish Impact of Visitation on Traditional Lifestyles

Dr. Kenneth MacDonald (USA) — received his Ph.D. from the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada) in 1995 and currently teaches in the Department of Geography at the University of Iowa in the USA. From 1993 to 1998 he taught in the Department of the Geography and the Interdisciplinary Program in International Development studies at the University of Toronto (Ontario, Canada). He has worked in the Karakoram mountains of northern Pakistan for 15 years spending most of his time living in small agro-pastoral villages that have for over 150 years provided porter labour for mountaineering and exploration expeditions. He has published several articles and is working on a book on the relationship among local labour, development, and the adventure tourism industry. He received a grant for the Centre for Mountain Culture in 2000 for a project to address the detrimental effects of adventure tourism in the Karakoram.

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) Models/Standards/Monitoring of Sustainable Use

Dr. Edward W. (Ted) Manning (Canada) — is Director, Sustainable Development and Environmental Management for Consulting and Audit Canada and serves as Associate Director of the Centre for a Sustainable Future for the Foundation for International Training. He specializes in sustainable tourism development, environmental management, and natural resource policies. His previous posts include Executive Manager of Sustainable Tourism for Tourism Canada, Associate Director of Sustainable Development for Environment Canada, and Senior Planner, Caribbean, for the Canadian International Development Agency. He is also an Adjunct Research Professor in the Geography Department of Carleton University.

Since 1993, Dr. Manning has led the International Task Force on Indicators for Sustainable Tourism Development for the World Tourism Organization. He has led the development of indicators of sustainable tourism as a tool to identify risks to tourism destinations and to strengthen the planning process for impacted communities and ecosystems. He is the author of 21 books and over 70 articles on environmental tourism and environmental planning topics. His most recent book is entitled Governance for Tourism: Coping with Tourism in Impacted Destinations (Foundation for International Training/Centre for a Sustainable Future, Toronto, 1998.) Dr. Manning has served as a consultant on environmental, tourism and resource development issues to, among others, the governments of Canada, China, Argentina, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Zimbabwe, Mexico, Sri Lanka, Croatia and Pakistan, the World Tourism Organization, the Worldwide Fund for Nature and Natural Resources, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, USAID and the Harvard Institute for International Development .

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) What’s Appropriate Use and How Much is too Much?

Dr. Robert Manning (USA) — is a Professor at the School of Natural Resources at the University of Vermont. His most recent book is "Studies in Outdoor Recreation." Dr. Manning has worked for the U.S. National Park Service to develop and apply systems for measuring carrying capacity of protected areas.

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) Determining the Ecological Footprint of Activities to Support Management Decisions

Jeff Marion (USA) leads the Virginia Tech University Cooperative Park Studies Unit in Blacksburg, Virginia, a field station of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey. His specialty is recreation ecology: research and monitoring to evaluate environmental impacts resulting from recreational use of protected environments.

His research and management consultations focus on the identification and evaluation of alternatives for minimizing recreational impacts and development of programs to identify, inventory, manage, monitor, and rehabilitate the undesired effects of protected area visitation. He has also conducted international research on ecotourism impacts to protected areas, including studies and management consultations in Canada, Peru, Belize, Costa Rica, and Chile.

Dr. Marion also serves on the Board of Directors for Leave No Trace (LNT) and chairs their interagency Education Review Committee. He is active in developing and reviewing LNT educational materials and courses.

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) Human Use Management to Diminish Wildlife Impacts

Dr. David Mattson (USA) — is a Research Wildlife Biologist with the U.S. Geological Survey stationed at its Colorado Plateau Field Station in Flagstaff, Arizona. David has studied grizzly bears for the last 21 years, focusing on the conservation and behavioral ecology of bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho in the U.S.A. He spent 14 years intensively observing grizzly bear foraging behavior and diet as well as ecological relations of foods the bears ate. These studies revealed details about a broad spectrum of bear behaviors, including their bedding, use of rub trees, consumption of dirt and earthworms, exploitation of red squirrels, pocket gophers, and meadow mice, and predation on elk, moose, and trout. More recently, Dr. Mattson has focused on conservation issues and broad-scale evaluations of habitat conditions. These studies have broached not only the details of human-grizzly bear interactions, but also the social, political, and organizational dynamics that shape the policies and practices of carnivore conservation programs. His work has been featured in the journal Science and has been widely presented, including papers in Ecology, Conservation Biology, Biological Conservation, The Journal of Wildlife Management, and the Journal of Mammalogy.

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) Managing Local/Regional User Expectations

Richard Paradis (USA) — is director of the University of Vermont Natural Areas Center which was established to pursue education, research, and outreach activities concerning the protection, management and restoration of natural areas and other conservation lands. He is also a member of the faculty of the University's Environmental Program where he instructs courses and conducts research in field biology, conservation biology, land stewardship, and ecological restoration.

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) An Operational Approach to Managing Access and its Associated Impacts

Chris Rose (Australia) has been involved in Park Management in Australia for close to 20 years since finishing a Degree in Forest Science from Melbourne University. His current position is Manager of the Alpine District with Parks Victoria. The position encompasses direct management accountability for the over 750,000 hectares of reserves including the Alpine National Park (650,000 ha), Mount Buffalo NP (35,000 ha) and other smaller reserves. Chris moved to Victoria from Tasmania where his last position was as Regional Manager for Southern Tasmania, which included the majority of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area.

Chris’s current projects and interests lie in change management – be that with behavior and use patterns of customers and visitors, or with business practice operational delivery within organizations.

Other positions held include roles as Business Manager with the Tasmanian Parks Service, and Assistant Director responsible for major projects and operations again with Tasmanian Parks Service.

 green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) Encouraging the Cooperation of Tourism Operators

Carolyn Wild (Canada) is an adventurer with experience in tourism development which extends from the Arctic to the Australian Outback. Her love of nature is contagious and inspires others to recognize the benefits of tourism for long-term economic benefits and the protection of natural and cultural heritage. Carolyn is President and owner of WILD International, a tourism consulting company with offices in Ottawa, Canada, and Adelaide, Australia.

Carolyn is recognized internationally for expertise in ecotourism and adventure travel. She has worked directly with tour operators, communities and Aboriginal groups in several countries to develop tourism and marketing plans. Her key interest is appropriate development in natural areas which benefits local communities and helps conserve the environment. She is a frequent speaker at international forums, conducts workshops, develops ecotours and ecolodges and consults on market analysis, tourism planning and competitive strategy. Her clients include tourism authorities, protected area managers, conservation groups and communities in North and South America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe.

green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) Predicting and managing the changing technologies of access

Neil F. Woodworth (USA) is the Deputy Executive Director of the Adirondack Mountain Club (ADK) and Counsel to ADK and the NY-NJ Trail Conference, representing the interests of over 100,000 hikers and paddlers in New York State .

He is an environmental lawyer who has served in many official capacities in conservation affairs, including service on the Congressional Northern Forest Lands Council, the Empire State Task Force for Land and Water Conservation Funding, New York Open Space Advisory committee, Governor's Task Force on Military Overflights and the Governor's Task Force on the Adirondack Park Agency.

He has represented ADK in a variety of legal cases involving wilderness protection of the Adirondack and Catskill Forest Preserve, public navigation rights on rivers (Moose River case) and acid rain regulation. Mr. Woodworth spent ten years as a trial and litigation lawyer before assuming his duties with the Adirondack Mountain Club in 1989. He is graduate of Hobart College (1975) and Albany Law School of Union University (1978).

 green_arrow.gif (176 bytes) Managing Major Competitive Events

Dave Zehrer (USA) — is President, Triple Crown of Running/Pikes Peak Marathon Board of Directors in Colorado. First involved with the Pikes Peak Ascent and Pikes Peak Marathon races in 1990 as a volunteer setting up aid stations along the course, in 1993 he became chief of operations for the races and in 1994 assistant race director. In these capacities he prepared the annual operating plan required by the US Forest Service while continuing to be responsible for all aspects of course operations. From 1995, he also has done the annual coordination with commercial firms and governmental agencies to reduce potential conflicts arising from the races. In 1996, Mr. Zehrer assumed all tasks associated with organizing the races to include planning, budgeting and business management and in 1997 became race co-director. In 1999 he became the race director for the Pikes Peak Ascent and Pikes Peak Marathon and continues to serve as the organizer and director of the races. An avid hiker, backpacker and recreational runner, Mr. Zehrer lives four miles north of Pikes Peak in rural Teller County, Colorado.

Purchase a copy of the Proceedings

Felicity Edwards
Felicity has been involved in several and differing organizations since arriving in Canada in 1978. Her work has taken her to many countries including Thailand, the Caribbean, Brazil, India, Egypt and several countries in Europe. In different capacities, she has worked with groups inside organizations and outside to help on questions of organizational management, decision-making, planning, sustainability, and natural resource management and community development. Her most recent volunteer achievements include a second term as Chair of the Canadian Parks Partnership (a Canada-wide volunteer organization supporting Canada's parks, historical sites and waterways); and Chair of the Advisory Board on Canadian Identity for the Roundtable for the Minister of Canadian Heritage. She has a Masters in Human Ecology and an MBA.

Bob Sandford
Bob is a naturalist, historian and author who has been working to celebrate the nature, history and culture of the Canadian Rockies for more than 30 years. Bob is presently the coordinator of the Heritage Tourism Strategy, a leading-edge partnership among Parks Canada, the Rocky Mountain business community, the Towns of Banff, Jasper, Lake Louise, Waterton, Field, Golden and Jasper and local and regional cultural institutions.

Marni Virtue
For the past 11 years, Marni has designed and facilitated one- to five-day leadership and team development programs as an associate with the Pacific Centre for Leadership, as faculty at the Banff Centre for Management, and through her own company. Marni has a B.A. in Psychology and postgraduate courses in Communication, learning theory and group dynamics. She works with a wide variety of corporate clients in the areas of team and leadership development, including values and vision clarification, communication skills instruction, conflict resolution and meeting facilitation.

Conference Format and Schedule
We intend to explore each of the four main conference themes (access, cultural impact, recreation and tourism, and environmental impact) in moderated panel discussions in front of the entire group. Each plenary session will be followed by your choice of three specific, relevant, problem-solving exercises based on real-life problems proposed by Parks Canada, or by other participants.

All plenaries and problem-solving workshops will be moderated by professional facilitators, ensuring a good process so that you can concentrate on content.

As well, we will be encouraging the formation of working partnerships between attendees who have experience in solving a particular Human Use Management problem, and others who may be newly confronting a similar problem in their areas.

Therefore, as a participant, you will benefit by:

  • Being given access to internationally renowned experts in this field
  • Being equipped with information and ideas so that you can more effectively respond to and participate in planning and management initiatives in your home area
  • Having experienced (in the problem-solving sessions) how that information and those ideas can be applied to practical management problems
  • Adding to your network of personal contacts to continue your learning in this field after your return to your home area.

Proceedings will be published after the conference – one copy will automatically be sent to each participant, and additional copies will be available for purchase.

Conference Languages:
The main conference language is English. There will be simultaneous interpretation of plenary sessions into French.

Conference Location
The Location:

The Banff Centre is Canada’s leading international learning centre dedicated to creativity, career development and life-long learning for professional artists and managers. Located in Canada’s first national park and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Centre is a picturesque 90-minute drive west of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Click on Conference Facilities for more detailed information about The Banff Centre campus.

The Organizers and Sponsors:

Mountain Culture at The Banff Centre promotes understanding and appreciation of the world’s mountain places by creating opportunities for people to share – and find inspiration in – mountain experiences, ideas and visions. Among their many programs, the Centre for Mountain Culture presents the Banff Mountain Film and Book Festivals every year, and tours the ‘Best of the Festival’ to tens of thousands of people in more than 20 countries.

Parks Canada is Canada's national park agency, responsible for 40 national parks, many located in mountainous areas. Nine national parks have been recognized by the IUCN as World Heritage Sites. Parks Canada is also responsible for marine conservation areas and national historic sites.

Scholarships Available
Arthur B. Schultz Foundation

Thanks to the generosity of the Arthur B. Schultz Foundation, three full scholarships are available for participants from Western Canada or the United States. These scholarships cover travel to and from the conference, conference fees, and meals and accommodation during the conference.

To be eligible for one of these scholarships, you must meet the following criteria, as specified in our agreement with the Foundation:

  • Resident in a mountain area of Western Canada or the United States
  • Active in human use management and conservation issues in your mountain area
  • Able to demonstrate financial need such that without the scholarship, you would be unable to attend the conference
  • Willing to guarantee that the funds granted shall not be used to support political lobbying or the promotion of political candidates and initiatives

An example of an appropriate recipient might be an employee, volunteer or board member of a charitable, non-profit or educational group.

To apply for one of these scholarships, please submit an application (3 pages or less) in writing, detailing how you meet the criteria and how attending the conference would assist you in your work or volunteer endeavours. Applications must be received at our offices by April 2, and scholarship recipients will be notified by April 26.

Please submit applications to:

The Banff Centre for Mountain Culture
Box 1020, Station 38, Banff, Alberta T1L 1H5
fax: 403-762-6277
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Through a grant from the Rivendell Foundation, five invited participants from the northeastern United States will receive full scholarships to attend the conference.