Hardening Facilities for Changing Use
Dr. Bob Aitken (Scotland) - is a freelance research
consultant and writer. Bob's Ph.D. at Aberdeen University (1977) was on Wilderness Areas
in Scotland, and he has pursued studies on wild land and protected areas since then. But
for nearly 20 years mountain paths have been the main focus of his work. This has evolved
from arduous hands-on trials of experimental repair techniques, through development of
survey and monitoring methodologies and contracting practice, to compilation of area
inventories and strategies. Recent reviews have explored the multiple and sometimes
conflicting roles of path systems as tools for recreation management and for the
conservation of montane environments. While Bob's work in this field has been primarily in
the UK, he has taken a close interest in the management of paths - or trails or tracks -
in other parts of Europe, North America and Australasia.
Chronically addicted to mountains, mountain
conservation, mountaineering literature and history, Bob is engaged with innumerable
recreation and conservation NGOs. He has also served on various Scottish government
committees, including several engaged in the infinitely slow process of developing
National Park proposals for Scotland - which is finally bearing fruit.
Sacred Places Managing
Conflict Between Value Systems
Dr. Edwin Bernbaum (USA) is a
lecturer, author, mountaineer, and scholar of comparative religion and mythology. His book
Sacred Mountains of the World (University of California Press) won the Commonwealth Club
of California's gold medal for best work of nonfiction and the Giuseppe Mazzotti Special
Jury Award in Italy for literature of mountaineering, exploration, and the environment. He
is Director of the Sacred Mountains program at The Mountain Institute and a Research
Associate at the University of California at Berkeley.
as a Human Use Management Tool
Dr. Ralf Buckley (Australia) is
Professor and Director of the International Centre for Ecotourism Research, established at
Griffith University in 1993. He is Director Nature and Adventure Tourism for the
Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, established in 1997, and coordinates
its Environment R&D Program, which also includes subprograms in Wildlife Tourism and
He leads the Green Guides program on best-practice
environmental management in tourism, and the Nature Tourism Initiative, including: the
People in Parks project on environmental monitoring and management systems; the
Partnerships in Parks compendium of case studies in cooperative management; the Heritage
Icon Value project on tourism value of World Heritage listing; and the Nature Tourism
National Review, summarising the fees, charges and permitting systems used for private
visitors and tour operators in Australian protected areas. Ralf is also convenor of the
2001 Fenner Conference on Nature Tourism and the Environment, to be held at the Australian
Academy of Science in September.
Ralf has written over 200 articles in science, management
and tourism journals, 8 books, and over 100 consultant reports; and has carried out
research and consulting projects in over 40 countries worldwide.
Further info: www.gu.edu.au/centre/icer
phone +61-7-55528675, fax +61-7-55528895
How to Allocate Recreational Opportunity and
Tom Elliot (Canada) has worked as a
park warden for Parks Canada since 1978. His career began in Kluane National Park &
Reserve and has taken him to Nahanni, Wood Buffalo, Yoho, and Auyuittuq National Parks,
and Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site.
Tom has a BSc in Forestry from the University of Alberta. He returned to school
in 1992 and obtained his MSc in Recreation Resource Management from the University of
Montana. His graduate research was aimed at helping Parks Canada develop a use limit
program for the Chilkoot Trail.
Tom currently carries the wilderness management portfolio for the Yukon Field
Unit consisting of Kluane and Vuntut National Parks, and the Chilkoot, SS Klondike and
Dawson City National Historic Sites. His work is generally focussed around recreational
use management issues. He frequently works within multiple stakeholder group settings to
develop management scenarios that fulfill agency mandates for commemorative and ecological
integrity in a manner that recognizes stakeholder needs and interests.
Tom helped establish and evaluate the recreational use limit programs for the
Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site, and the Alsek River in Kluane National Park. His
work in this area provides the basis of his allocation presentation.
Trends in Demographics of Users and How the Trends
Affect Human Use Management
Managing Conflicts Among Users
Dr. Alison Gill (Canada) a
Professor and Chair in the Department of Geography at Simon Fraser University, British
Columbia where she also holds a joint appointment in the School of Resource and
Environmental Management. She has research interests in community development and planning
issues in tourism environments - which have evolved from earlier research on the planning
and design of single industry mining communities. She has published over 50 journal
articles and book chapters on these subjects. In recent research she has focused on
processes of community change associated with tourism related activities, especially in
the Howe Sound-Whistler Corridor of British Columbia. At a broader scale her work explores
various aspects of tourism in mountain environments.
Lyle Laverty (USA) is currently the
Associate Deputy Chief of the US Forest Service responsible for the leadership and
implementation of the National Fire Plan. He is responsible for the fire plan activities
on more than 191,000,000 acres of National Forest System lands across the United States.
His responsibilities include the oversight and stewardship of a $2.0 billion program of
Before his current assignment, Lyle was the Regional Forester of the Rocky Mountain
Region of the US Forest Service, responsible for managing natural resource activities on
more than 22 million acres of Americas Forests and Grasslands in Colorado, Kansas,
Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming.
He previously served as a senior executive in the Forest Services Washington,
D.C. Headquarters Office serving as Director of Recreation, Heritage and Wilderness
Resources. He held that position from October 1992 to 1997, after moving from the Pacific
Northwest Region where he was Regional Director of Recreation, Heritage and Wilderness
Lyles first assignment with the Forest Service was in timber management on the
Six Rivers National Forest in Orleans California. In 1972, he became timber management
assistant on the Bear Springs Ranger District of the Mt. Hood National Forest in Oregon,
followed with an assignment as District Ranger on the Skykomish Ranger District of the Mt.
Baker- Snoqualmie National Forest in western Washington.
During a previous headquarters assignment, Lyle spent nearly six years in the
Chiefs office in Washington, D.C., working with the Policy Analysis, Recreation, and
Strategic Planning staff units. He was Forest Supervisor of the Mendocino National Forest
in Northern California from 1983 to 1987.
A native of California, Lyle received a Bachelor of Science in Forest Management from
Humboldt State University in Northern California, and a Masters Degree in Public
Administration from George Mason University in Northern Virginia. He is a registered
professional forester in California.
Lyle enjoys skiing, hiking, and mountain biking. He lives in Colorado with his wife
Pam. They are the parents of two grown children, Lori and Chad.
Amenity Migrants and Their Impact on Use
Pam Lichtman (USA) has headed up
the Jackson Hole (Wyoming) Conservation Alliance's issues work since 1993. She currently
represents the Alliance in the public lands forum, which includes matters regarding Grand
Teton and Yellowstone National Parks, the national forests, oil and gas leasing, and
grizzly bear management. Pam holds a B.A. in Political Science and Environmental Studies
from the University of Vermont, and an M.S. in Hydrology and Water Resource Management
from the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. Before coming to work for the
Alliance, she was employed as a consultant for the Natural Resources Defense Council,
project assistant for the Center for Marine Conservation, and legislative aide for Zero
Population Growth. Pam is also a Research Associate with the Northern Rockies Conservation
Cooperative based in Jackson.
Human Use Management to Diminish Impact of
Visitation on Traditional Lifestyles
Dr. Kenneth MacDonald (USA)
received his Ph.D. from the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada) in 1995 and currently
teaches in the Department of Geography at the University of Iowa in the USA. From 1993 to
1998 he taught in the Department of the Geography and the Interdisciplinary Program in
International Development studies at the University of Toronto (Ontario, Canada). He has
worked in the Karakoram mountains of northern Pakistan for 15 years spending most of his
time living in small agro-pastoral villages that have for over 150 years provided porter
labour for mountaineering and exploration expeditions. He has published several articles
and is working on a book on the relationship among local labour, development, and the
adventure tourism industry. He received a grant for the Centre for Mountain Culture in
2000 for a project to address the detrimental effects of adventure tourism in the
Models/Standards/Monitoring of Sustainable Use
Dr. Edward W. (Ted) Manning (Canada)
is Director, Sustainable Development and Environmental Management for Consulting
and Audit Canada and serves as Associate Director of the Centre for a Sustainable Future
for the Foundation for International Training. He specializes in sustainable tourism
development, environmental management, and natural resource policies. His previous posts
include Executive Manager of Sustainable Tourism for Tourism Canada, Associate Director of
Sustainable Development for Environment Canada, and Senior Planner, Caribbean, for the
Canadian International Development Agency. He is also an Adjunct Research Professor in the
Geography Department of Carleton University.
Since 1993, Dr. Manning has led the International Task
Force on Indicators for Sustainable Tourism Development for the World Tourism
Organization. He has led the development of indicators of sustainable tourism as a tool to
identify risks to tourism destinations and to strengthen the planning process for impacted
communities and ecosystems. He is the author of 21 books and over 70 articles on
environmental tourism and environmental planning topics. His most recent book is entitled Governance
for Tourism: Coping with Tourism in Impacted Destinations (Foundation for
International Training/Centre for a Sustainable Future, Toronto, 1998.) Dr. Manning has
served as a consultant on environmental, tourism and resource development issues to, among
others, the governments of Canada, China, Argentina, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Zimbabwe,
Mexico, Sri Lanka, Croatia and Pakistan, the World Tourism Organization, the Worldwide
Fund for Nature and Natural Resources, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, USAID
and the Harvard Institute for International Development .
Whats Appropriate Use and How Much is too
Dr. Robert Manning (USA) is a
Professor at the School of Natural Resources at the University of Vermont. His most recent
book is "Studies in Outdoor Recreation." Dr. Manning has worked for the U.S.
National Park Service to develop and apply systems for measuring carrying capacity of
Determining the Ecological Footprint of Activities
to Support Management Decisions
Jeff Marion (USA) leads the
Virginia Tech University Cooperative Park Studies Unit in Blacksburg, Virginia, a field
station of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey. His specialty is
recreation ecology: research and monitoring to evaluate environmental impacts resulting
from recreational use of protected environments.
His research and management consultations focus on the
identification and evaluation of alternatives for minimizing recreational impacts and
development of programs to identify, inventory, manage, monitor, and rehabilitate the
undesired effects of protected area visitation. He has also conducted international
research on ecotourism impacts to protected areas, including studies and management
consultations in Canada, Peru, Belize, Costa Rica, and Chile.
Dr. Marion also serves on the Board of Directors for Leave No
Trace (LNT) and chairs their interagency Education Review Committee. He is active in
developing and reviewing LNT educational materials and courses.
Human Use Management to Diminish Wildlife Impacts
Dr. David Mattson (USA) is a
Research Wildlife Biologist with the U.S. Geological Survey stationed at its Colorado
Plateau Field Station in Flagstaff, Arizona. David has studied grizzly bears for the last
21 years, focusing on the conservation and behavioral ecology of bears in the Yellowstone
ecosystem of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho in the U.S.A. He spent 14 years intensively
observing grizzly bear foraging behavior and diet as well as ecological relations of foods
the bears ate. These studies revealed details about a broad spectrum of bear behaviors,
including their bedding, use of rub trees, consumption of dirt and earthworms,
exploitation of red squirrels, pocket gophers, and meadow mice, and predation on elk,
moose, and trout. More recently, Dr. Mattson has focused on conservation issues and
broad-scale evaluations of habitat conditions. These studies have broached not only the
details of human-grizzly bear interactions, but also the social, political, and
organizational dynamics that shape the policies and practices of carnivore conservation
programs. His work has been featured in the journal Science and has been widely
presented, including papers in Ecology, Conservation Biology, Biological
Conservation, The Journal of Wildlife Management, and the Journal of
Managing Local/Regional User Expectations
Operational Approach to Managing Access and its Associated Impacts
Richard Paradis (USA) is director
of the University of Vermont Natural Areas Center which was established to pursue
education, research, and outreach activities concerning the protection, management and
restoration of natural areas and other conservation lands. He is also a member of the
faculty of the University's Environmental Program where he instructs courses and conducts
research in field biology, conservation biology, land stewardship, and ecological
Chris Rose (Australia) has been involved in
Park Management in Australia for close to 20 years since finishing a Degree in Forest
Science from Melbourne University. His current position is Manager of the Alpine District
with Parks Victoria. The position encompasses direct management accountability for the
over 750,000 hectares of reserves including the Alpine National Park (650,000 ha), Mount
Buffalo NP (35,000 ha) and other smaller reserves. Chris moved to Victoria from Tasmania
where his last position was as Regional Manager for Southern Tasmania, which included the
majority of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area.
Chriss current projects and interests lie in change management be that
with behavior and use patterns of customers and visitors, or with business practice
operational delivery within organizations.
Other positions held include roles as Business Manager with the Tasmanian Parks
Service, and Assistant Director responsible for major projects and operations again with
Tasmanian Parks Service.
the Cooperation of Tourism Operators
Predicting and managing the changing
technologies of access
Carolyn Wild (Canada) is an adventurer with
experience in tourism development which extends from the Arctic to the Australian Outback.
Her love of nature is contagious and inspires others to recognize the benefits of tourism
for long-term economic benefits and the protection of natural and cultural heritage.
Carolyn is President and owner of WILD International, a tourism consulting company with
offices in Ottawa, Canada, and Adelaide, Australia.
Carolyn is recognized internationally for
expertise in ecotourism and adventure travel. She has worked directly with tour operators,
communities and Aboriginal groups in several countries to develop tourism and marketing
plans. Her key interest is appropriate development in natural areas which benefits local
communities and helps conserve the environment. She is a frequent speaker at international
forums, conducts workshops, develops ecotours and ecolodges and consults on market
analysis, tourism planning and competitive strategy. Her clients include tourism
authorities, protected area managers, conservation groups and communities in North and
South America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe.
Neil F. Woodworth (USA) is the Deputy Executive
Director of the Adirondack Mountain Club (ADK) and Counsel to ADK and the NY-NJ Trail
Conference, representing the interests of over 100,000 hikers and paddlers in New York
He is an environmental lawyer who has served in many official capacities in
conservation affairs, including service on the Congressional Northern Forest Lands
Council, the Empire State Task Force for Land and Water Conservation Funding, New York
Open Space Advisory committee, Governor's Task Force on Military Overflights and the
Governor's Task Force on the Adirondack Park Agency.
He has represented ADK in a variety of legal cases involving wilderness protection of
the Adirondack and Catskill Forest Preserve, public navigation rights on rivers (Moose
River case) and acid rain regulation. Mr. Woodworth spent ten years as a trial and
litigation lawyer before assuming his duties with the Adirondack Mountain Club in 1989. He
is graduate of Hobart College (1975) and Albany Law School of Union University (1978).
Major Competitive Events
Dave Zehrer (USA) is President,
Triple Crown of Running/Pikes Peak Marathon Board of Directors in Colorado. First involved
with the Pikes Peak Ascent and Pikes Peak Marathon races in 1990 as a volunteer setting up
aid stations along the course, in 1993 he became chief of operations for the races and in
1994 assistant race director. In these capacities he prepared the annual operating plan
required by the US Forest Service while continuing to be responsible for all aspects of
course operations. From 1995, he also has done the annual coordination with commercial
firms and governmental agencies to reduce potential conflicts arising from the races. In
1996, Mr. Zehrer assumed all tasks associated with organizing the races to include
planning, budgeting and business management and in 1997 became race co-director. In 1999
he became the race director for the Pikes Peak Ascent and Pikes Peak Marathon and
continues to serve as the organizer and director of the races. An avid hiker, backpacker
and recreational runner, Mr. Zehrer lives four miles north of Pikes Peak in rural Teller
a copy of the Proceedings
Felicity has been involved in several and differing organizations since arriving in
Canada in 1978. Her work has taken her to many countries including Thailand, the
Caribbean, Brazil, India, Egypt and several countries in Europe. In different capacities,
she has worked with groups inside organizations and outside to help on questions of
organizational management, decision-making, planning, sustainability, and natural resource
management and community development. Her most recent volunteer achievements include a
second term as Chair of the Canadian Parks Partnership (a Canada-wide volunteer
organization supporting Canada's parks, historical sites and waterways); and Chair of the
Advisory Board on Canadian Identity for the Roundtable for the Minister of Canadian
Heritage. She has a Masters in Human Ecology and an MBA.
Bob is a naturalist, historian and author who has been working to celebrate the
nature, history and culture of the Canadian Rockies for more than 30 years. Bob is
presently the coordinator of the Heritage Tourism Strategy, a leading-edge partnership
among Parks Canada, the Rocky Mountain business community, the Towns of Banff, Jasper,
Lake Louise, Waterton, Field, Golden and Jasper and local and regional cultural
For the past 11 years, Marni has designed and facilitated one- to five-day
leadership and team development programs as an associate with the Pacific Centre for
Leadership, as faculty at the Banff Centre for Management, and through her own company.
Marni has a B.A. in Psychology and postgraduate courses in Communication, learning theory
and group dynamics. She works with a wide variety of corporate clients in the areas of
team and leadership development, including values and vision clarification, communication
skills instruction, conflict resolution and meeting facilitation.
Arthur B. Schultz Foundation
Thanks to the generosity of the Arthur B. Schultz Foundation, three full
scholarships are available for participants from Western Canada or the United States.
These scholarships cover travel to and from the conference, conference fees, and meals and
accommodation during the conference.
To be eligible for one of these scholarships, you must meet
the following criteria, as specified in our agreement with the Foundation:
- Resident in a mountain area of Western Canada or the United
- Active in human use management and conservation issues in
your mountain area
- Able to demonstrate financial need such that without the
scholarship, you would be unable to attend the conference
- Willing to guarantee that the funds granted shall not be
used to support political lobbying or the promotion of political candidates and
An example of an appropriate recipient might be an
employee, volunteer or board member of a charitable, non-profit or educational group.
To apply for one of these scholarships, please submit an
application (3 pages or less) in writing, detailing how you meet the criteria and how
attending the conference would assist you in your work or volunteer endeavours.
Applications must be received at our offices by April 2, and scholarship recipients will
be notified by April 26.
Please submit applications to:
The Banff Centre for Mountain Culture
Box 1020, Station 38, Banff, Alberta T1L 1H5
Through a grant from the Rivendell Foundation, five
participants from the northeastern United States will receive full scholarships to attend